DRAFT: This module has unpublished changes.

Tanya Williams                                                                                                                   p.1


World Civ


Professor R.Seckla



                                                                Term Paper


 At the onset of World War II Totalitarian rulers fed off of the grief of the people


oppressed by the great depression. The people had lost all hope, and totalitarian


rulers promised to bring about national greatness again.  Bentley (2015), Mass media


was a great asset for leaders like Hitler to spread their message. The common people


were tired of being hungry and poor. They swarmed to the future these authoritative


leaders claimed they would create by any means necessary including  military violence.


The United States citizens led by president Herbert Hoover were just as hungry and


disgruntled. That is why Hoover lost the next election to Franklin D. Roosevelt who


reigned during the United States catapult into becoming one of the strongest nations


on the planet; a super power.


In some of the colonies the stigma of  WWI still lingered and they preferred to


use nonviolent resistance as a means of getting there message across. Gandhi in India



would emerge as one of the most famous leaders of nonviolent protest. Leaders of


the west in general wanted nothing to do with another world war. That is why


they let Hitler and Mussolini spread their propaganda; gaining large followings.


In the United States ,progressive thinkers, like Frank B. Kellogg were already firing


warning shots against allowing Mussolini, Hitler, Stalin or any other totalitarian type


ruler to think things will be how they have always been. “The right thinking American


citizens desire that our country keep out of war; but at the present time the most superficial


observer as well as the person who is doing the cause of peace the most harm is he who says


that the situation in the world today is the same as that which prevailed in 1914. A small but


vociferous group of isolationists have created for themselves an unreal world based upon the


conditions of 1914. They fail to realize how different is the world of 1935.”Kellogg 1935


In Asia, the military of Japan persuaded citizens that they needed to end white


domination. Japan was waving the white flag of peace, secretly planning attacks.


WW2 was breaking out. The United States entered after the attack on Pearl Harbor.


Excerpts from Roosevelt’s speech, “I ask that the Congress declare that since the unprovoked


and dastardly attack by Japan on Sunday, December 7, a state of war has existed between the


United States and the Japanese Empire.


THE WHITE HOUSE, December 8, 1941.”


The allies determined that Japan Italy and Germany  needed to be stopped. The allies


at that time included France, Britain, The Soviet Union, China and the United States.



When WW2 ended Japan was now occupied by the United States, European countries


were devastated,  European colonies were rebelling and on the verge of

                                                                                                                                               Independence the war had dislocated many families especially in North Africa Asia


and the Pacific Islands. Millions of lives were lost, the entire Jewish race had been


persecuted during the Holocaust under the command of Adolf Hitler.  US and British


intelligence would play a role in bringing war crime charges to Nazi officers. Bentley


(2015),  Europe's Global dominance was finally ended. The Soviet Union and the


United States became the world’s superpowers.  The United Nations was formed to


maintain global peace.

The British had grown weary in fighting and allowed the UN to  take over and


turn Palestine into a resting place for the dislocated Jews which would become the


nation of Israel. The Arabs who were native to Palestine,we're very upset about this


and counteracted with violence.  The end result was that two-thirds of the land in


Palestine would become Israel. Many Arabs lost their homes to the Jews.

The The Cold War between the superpowers extended far beyond the two


Countries. Spying propaganda and Guerrilla War tactics were used from Latin



America to Africa; by both the United States and the Soviet Union. One advantage


the Soviet Union had that took the world by surprise. It was advancement in the outer


space realm. The Soviet’s were able to orbit around the Earth.  One radical thinker


about the United States relations with the Soviet Union was Kennan. His containment


philosophy, “ The United States, Kennan’s article implied, should face down the Soviet


Union and its Communist allies whenever and wherever they posed a risk of gaining


influence.”   (Kennan) Foreign advancement made the exploration of outer space


very important.  In 1969 the US would put Neil Armstrong on the moon.



Bentley (2015), War between North and South Korea broke out in direct


correlation with the Cold War. The Soviet Union supported North Korea. The


United States backed South Korea; convincing the United Nations to take


action against North Korea. The Korean War lasted two and a half years and


millions died. It also hurt the United States economy. Military spending rose to almost


60 billion. The United States president was now Dwight Eisenhower. As a result of


World War II many organizations began to develop like NATO , the Warsaw Pact, which


was Russia's version of the NATO  made up of the following countries; Albania,


Bulgaria Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland  and Romania. The United


States went a step further with its OAS, being in an alliance with the OAS, meant  




economic and military aid  Latin American countries. Another Alliance that formed, was


the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization.  Cuba was one of the only Latin American


countries that did not subscribe to some type of an organization. The communist


country led by Fidel Castro,  would soon become alienated from the United States for


the rest of the century. During JFK’s presidency Cuba was brought to the limelight. In


his speech, The Lesson of Cuba, JFK tells of the true cost of the United States getting


involved in the war against communism. “ But there are from this sobering episode useful lessons

for all to learn. Some may be still obscure and await further information. Some are clear today.First, it is clear that the forces of communism are not to be underestimated; in Cuba or anywhere else in the world, The advantages of

a police state - its use of mass terror and arrests to prevent the spread of free dissent - cannot be overlooked by those who expect the fall of every fanatic tyrant. . . .Secondly, it is clear that this Nation, in concert with all the free nations of this hemisphere, must take all even closer and more realistic look- at the menace of external

Communist intervention and domination in Cuba. The American people arc not complacent about Iron Curtain tanks and planes less than 90 miles from our shores. . . .The evidence is clear-and the hour is late. We and our Latin friends will have to face the fact that we cannot postpone any longer the real issue of the survival of freedom

in thIs hemisphere itself. . . .Third, and finally, it is clearer than ever that we face a relentless struggle in every

corner of the globe that goes far beyond the clash of armies or even nuclear armaments. The armies are there,

and in large number. The nuclear armaments are there. But they serve primarily as the shield behind which subversion, infiltration, and a host of other tactics steadily advance, picking off vulnerable areas one by one in situations which do not permit our own armed intervention.”


All Of  Africa wanted out of colonization. The United States played a major role  


in the decolonization of Africa. For example it was American troops that backed Egypt


to drive out Britain. That gave the other Middle Eastern countries hope that they too


could become independent. Kenya gained independence from Britain in 1963.


By then many of the African nations had rebelled against the British and asked the


French to leave peaceably which they did. However  to prevent World War 3,


the United States backed down, when the Polish and hungarians were protesting


against the Soviet troops. Bentley (2015) , In China,Leader Mao Zedong caused a


famine,  in his zeal for industrial advancement. He ordered the farmers, to stop


farming and melt down all their tools to make industrial equipment; which ended up


being an utter failure. China did eventually make the Great Leap Forward, as it is one


of the leaders in technological advancement today. China is one of the United States


biggest competitors today.

The Cold War changed the United States in many ways.  Military spending


increased drastically,  the United States like the Soviet Union acquired an arsenal


of massive atomic weapons. The reality of nuclear war was and now is something to


be considered.  


During the time of celebrating peace and independent thinking the United


States would once again enter into war.  As they sent troops to Vietnam. To support


South Vietnam against communist North Vietnam. Richard Nixon was the president


who ended the Vietnam War.  It would not be the last of the century though,  in 1990


the United States would once again enter into war on foreign soil. The Gulf War  


against Iraq. The number of soldiers lives lost was relatively low for the United


States compared to other wars, perhaps because the fighting lasted only one year.


The liberation of Kuwait cost  the US economy billions of dollars.



Throughout  the 19th century the United States position in foreign affairs changed


drastically. The USA went from being a relatively, new country fighting its own civil


war to a world superpower. As a prominent member of the UN, and many other


organization the United States is very involved in foreign politics. The United States


has an advanced military and economically backs many impoverished countries with


foreign aid. Today the USA is seen as both a welcomed ally and major threat abroad.


After the 9/11 attack on American soil president George W. Bush stated, “ We ask every nation to join us. We will ask, and we will need, the help of police forces, intelligence services,

and banking systems around the world. The United States is grateful that many nations and

many international organizations have already responded -- with sympathy and with support. Nations from Latin America, to Asia, to Africa, to Europe, to the Islamic world. Perhaps the NATO Charter reflects best the attitude of the world: An attack on one is an attack on all.”Bush 2011


The sum of all this war, a United States that is engaged in foreign politics for the good of


all, that sometimes becomes the victim of terrorism due to its  foreign affairs.

Works cited


Bentley, Jerry and Herbert Ziegler.  Traditions and Encounters: A Global Perspective on the Past, Volume II: From 1500 to the Present.  Sixth Edition, 2015.


Bush, George. “September 11, 2001 : Attack on America Address to a Joint Session of Congress and the American People (As Delivered Before Congress) 9:00 P.M. EDT; September 20, 2001.” The Avalon Project : Address to a Joint Session of Congress and the American People (As Delivered Before Congress) 9:00 P.M. EDT; September 20, 2001, 2011, avalon.law.yale.edu/sept11/president_025.asp.


Kellogg, Frank B. “The Pact of Paris and the Relationship of the United States to the World Community.” The Avalon Project : The Pact of Paris and the Relationship of the United States to the World Community, avalon.law.yale.edu/20th_century/kb1935.asp.


“Kennan and Containment, 1947.” U.S. Department of State, U.S. Department of State, history.state.gov/milestones/1945-1952/kennan.


Kennedy, John F. “Modern History Sourcebook: John F. Kennedy: The Lesson of Cuba, 1961.” Internet History Sourcebooks, 1961, sourcebooks.fordham.edu/mod/1961-kennedy-cuba1.asp.


Roosevelt, Franklin “Declarations of a State of War with Japan, Germany, and Italy : Address of the President of the United States Delivered before a Joint Session of the Two Houses of the Congress on December 8, 1941 Requesting That the Congress Declare That a State of War Has Existed Since December 7, 1941, between the United States and the Japanese Empire - Also Messages from the President of the United States Dated December 11, 1941, Requesting the Congress to Recognize a State of War between the United States and Germany, and between the United States and Italy - Together with The Proclamations of the President and Extracts from the Congressional Record Showing Only the Official Action of the Senate and House of Representatives in Connection Therewith.” Avalon Project - Documents in Law, History and Diplomacy, avalon.law.yale.edu/wwii/dec03.asp#address.



DRAFT: This module has unpublished changes.
DRAFT: This module has unpublished changes.
DRAFT: This module has unpublished changes.

Tanya Williams

visual analysis

September 12 2014

Fourteenth century Europe was a time when art was thriving. Although art was flourishing;Europe was just coming out of the Hundred Year War with France, dealing with famine, the black plague, and a corrupt government. Religion was a very important part of life. All three paintings being analyzed were done for churches. The blessed Virgin and child, appealed to both the prestigious art collector and the common man looking for a saviour. All three artist used tempera and gold on wood as a medium. In all three paintings the Virgin sits on a gold throne.


In Cimabue and Giotto’s paintings the virgin holds the child, who has a scroll in one hand.His hands and feet are very real life like. Cimabue painted angels with wings, who aren’t in flight; surrounding the throne. They have very different detailed faces, yet all wear the same warm yet somber expression. There are four hebrew prophets underneath the throne holding a large scroll, perhaps the death count from the black plague they look angry. The dramatic pathos and narrative iconography is consistent with the greek style. The greek style can also be seen in Cimabue’s use of gold to create shadow and highlights throughout the painting especially in the folds of the Virgin’s robe. In proportion to the other two paintings being analyzed Cimabue’s virgin is much larger. The painting introduces the naturalistic style in his use of 3 dimensional figures.


It is very interesting that Giotto was a student of Cimabue. Both artist did paintings titled Virgin and Child Enthroned. Both paintings include large Virgin Mary’s who appear to be gazing right at the viewer. Giotto uses gold, but not in the same byzantine way Cimabue does. In Giotto’s painting the virgin’s robe is a deep blue, there are no gold highlights in the folds. The figures are very much three dimensional given to the emerging naturalistic styles.


The figures surrounding the throne as well as the two angels at the foot of the throne are painted with lifelike faces but all look toward the virgin and child. Only Mary and Jesus full face can be viewed for they are looking straight out of the painting at the viewer. The throne is gold, and gold circles appear around the head of all the figures in Cimabue’s painting; Giotto only uses the gold circles around the figures in the forefront. There are human figures in the very background without the halo effect. The angels have red and black wings, the wings are similar in both paintings. Giotto used live natural models for his drawings, this is clear in the life like figures in the painting. Giotto’s use of live models was a major step in moving from the greek style to naturalistic it hadn’t been done in two hundred years. Giotto uses greater spatial consistency and sculptural consistency(539) than Cimabue. Mary is clutching Jesus leg in this painting, whereas she is almost holding him out to us as an offering in Cimabue’s. As if to say here is your gift. In Giotto’s those closest to the overwhelmingly huge Mary on the throne are bringing her gifts.The similarities in Giotto’s and Cimabue’s Virgin and Child are clearly visible.


Duccio’s is similar in that he basically uses the same color scheme and theme. However his painting is distinct. The most obvious being the size of the virgin in contrast to the rest of the painting. Duccio’s virgin,child and throne seem to be more realistic in size, they remain the forefront of the painting as in the others. Yet they are only slightly larger than the other figures in the painting. The gold circles representing halos appear around half of the figures in the painting. There are angels surrounding the throne, but they don't have the detailed red and black wings in this painting. As far back as the eye can see are human forms(saints), all very detailed reflecting the naturalistic style. Duccio’s The Virgin and Child in Majesty c. 1308 doesn’t show many signs of the Stylistic form of art so prevalent in Cimabue's painting of the same theme done only 28 years earlier.


All three paintings were done in a century when Europe lost 40 percent of it’s population to the black death or as we now refer to it ,the black plague.  The somber faces in all three paintings,and use of black, and navy blue could be reflections of this. Especially in the wings of the angels in Giotto’s and Cimabue’s paintings.

DRAFT: This module has unpublished changes.

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